Summary: The main goal of this study was to compare Iranian and European habits of bowel evacuation on defecographic measurements. Patients were instructed to defecate using two types of toilet: an unraised, ground-level style (common in Iran), and a bowl with attached tank style (common in Western countries). It concluded that the use of the Iranian-style toilet yielded a much wider anorectal angle, and a larger distance between the perineum and the horizontal plane of the pelvic floor than the European style. Bowel evacuation was also more complete using the Iranian-style toilet.
Summary: The aim of this study was to compare the straining forces applied when sitting or squatting during defecation. The study confirmed that sensation of satisfactory bowel emptying in sitting defecation posture necessitates excessive expulsive effort compared to the squatting posture.